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Question: Biochemical chart -Free Course Hero Question Answer.

Question Description:

Biochemical chart.

You can choose any pathway. It can be found in any organism. Draw the pathway in an artistically and scientifically self-consistent manner. Include information that conveys the purpose (function) of the pathway. It is up to you to decide which elements of the pathway to include in your chart. 

Common scientific elements include:

  • Names of the substrates and products of the individual metabolic reaction steps.
  • Key chemical structures, or even every chemical structure, of the substrates and products.
  • The names of the enzymes in the metabolic steps.
  • Additional information about key enzymes (For example, do they require cofactors? How might their protein structures or phosphorylation state affect the pathway?)
  • Information in the chart about how the pathway is regulated.
  • You don’t have to include all of these elements: it is your chart, so choose what you like. Sometimes less is more!

Common artistic elements include:

  • A coloring and stylistic scheme that helps the eye distinguish small molecules from large molecules, or input molecules from output molecules
  • Artistic flourishes that draw attention to high-energy molecules or molecules of energy currency like ATP.
  • Artistic consistency throughout the chart, and neatness counts.
  • Use of typefaces and chemical drawings that make it easy to follow the chart
  • A one-page is preferable to a lengthy stack of pages. Think of your chart as an informative map that reveals what you need to know at a glance.

I have attached an example below-

 The main purpose of a chart is, to sum up, the function of a metabolic pathway.


Image transcription text

Stage 1 mitochondria Stage 2 Stage 3 Acetyl-CoA cytoplasm Acetyl-CoA Electron transport production Pyruvate oxidation and oxidative dehydrogenase phosphorylation complex CO, FADHZ Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate Citrate NADH NADH Acetate ATP NADH, Respiratory Acetyl- Citric CO, FADH, (electron Fatty CoA acid cycle (reduced e- transport) acids carriers) chain- ADP + P NADH Amino Oxaloacetate acids 2 H+ O2 H,O ultimate oxidant in aerobic metabolism

Free Course Hero Answer

Course Hero Answer & Explanation:


Image transcription text

Step 1 Biotin Acetyl-CoA carboxylase CH,-C-S-COA+CO, o - d- CH, -d-S-COA Acetyl-CoA Malonyl-CoA ATP ADP + Pi Step 2A Acetyl transacylase (AT) Acetyl-COA + (CE)-SH Acetyl S-(CE) + CoA Step 2B Malonyl transacylase (MT) Malonyl-CoA + ACP-SH Malonyl- S-ACP + COA (CE)-S-CO-CH, + O-C-CH,-C-S-ACP Acetyl-S-(CE) Malonyl ACP Step 3 - CO2 Condensing enzyme or ketoacyl synthase (CE)-SH CH,-C-CH2-C-S-ACP Acetoacetyl-ACP or Beta-ketoacyl-ACP - NADPH + H Step 4 Ketoacyl reductase NADP' H =0 CH,-C-CH2-C-S-ACP OH B-hydroxybutyryl-ACP Step 5 Dehydratese H,O H CH,-C=C-C-S-ACP H Enoyl-ACP NADPH + H* Step 6 Enoyl reductase NADP* 11 CH,-CH- CH2-C-S-ACP Butyryl-ACP (4 carbons) (Steps 3,4,5,6) Repeat cycles 6 times (total 7 cycles) Thioesterase Step 7 |+HO Palmitic acid (16 carbons)

Fatty acids are synthesized mainly by a de novo pathway operating in the cytoplasm. It is also referred to as the extramitochondrial fatty acid synthase system. 
The starting material for this pathway is acetyl CoA. It is found in the mitochondria and is transported to the cytoplasm as citrate.
It’s a multienzyme complex  and has 3 domains : 

  • condensing unit 
  • Reduction unit
  • Releasing unit

The rate-limiting enzyme of this pathway is acetyl CoA carboxylase which is not a part of the multienzyme system.
An important point to remember is that the coenzyme for de novo is NADPH.

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