Blockchain technology has improved healthcare service delivery in the current healthcare system, such as secure encryption of patient information to handle healthcare crises. Thus, harnessing the blockchain’s power in healthcare and biotech has facilitated effective healthcare billing and enhanced prescription information in a digital format via creating an open-source database to enable easy access to patient information and care coordination. Generally, blockchain applications such as MediLedger in the healthcare sector have secured network infrastructure at every level, improved identity verification and authentication, and ensured even patterns of access authorization to electronic health information.
MediLedger has enabled secure data sharing and access between multiple parties as a building block of enhanced healthcare and biotech. This leading blockchain protocol has facilitated healthcare-based organizations across the prescription drug supply chain to verify the authenticity of drugs and expiry dates and other vital information to minimize medication errors or incidents. Healthcare and biotech have maintained effective compliance through this blockchain, as evidenced by minimized reporting burdens to ensure patient safety by medical manufacturers and pharmaceuticals (Bamakan et al., 2021). In sum, MediLedger aggregates supply chain data into one system to help streamline compliance. For instance, it offers automated law enforcement notifications after compliance issue gets spotted.
Pfizer Inc., AmerisourceBergen Corporation, McKesson Corporation, and Premier Inc. are leading biotech and healthcare companies using MediLedger. They have built blockchain-enabled ecosystems and supply chain solutions to improve their service delivery networks. For instance, through this blockchain technology, a company reduces “vendor lock-in” elements and keeps users’ data safe behind a firewall (Sajana et al., 2018). Only shared information gets shared with the companies’ specific trading partners.
MediLedger has continued to have a significant milestone in transforming healthcare and biotech sectors via its established sealable return drug verification protocol that satisfies the existing 2019 DSCSA regulations. This App system lacks “superuser” access whereby even the network manager cannot access MediLedger’s users’ private and confidential data and information. Primarily, MediLedger, like blockchain technology, helps store synchronized public health data to ensure all users rely on the same “source truth.” Also, the technology holds unchangeable care transaction records in a confidential approach that protects vital business intelligence. In 2012, Estonia started using blockchain technology in securing healthcare data and process transactions (Zhang et al., 2021).
Healthcare billings came under this blockchain, whereby 95% of health information was ledger-based, and 99% of all prescription information was digital.
Specifically, MediLedger has aided the approaches of tackling serialization issues in the healthcare industry. However, this issue needs information sharing among the involved parties to make the technology a good match for drug serialization. Therefore, this MediLedger blockchain technology helps store data on multiple separate nodes and servers, making it impossible for counterfeiters to change or alter the data (Sajana et al., 2018). If a counterfeiter tries to hack one server, it becomes difficult for such a person to modify data across all the others.
MediLedger relies on an authorized Enterprise Enthereum setting and Zero-Knowledge Proofs to maintain data confidentiality and allow information sharing. Since Ethereum stores every data in all nodes, it becomes an advantage for this blockchain app. Hyperledger Fabric has enabled hospitals to develop private channels between parties and use R3’s Corda to facilitate their node to only store data for involved transactions (Sajana et al., 2018). In sum, this technology aims at enabling all people using the network to see data, subject to the “covering” confidentiality provided by Zero-Knowledge Proofs.
SimplyVital is another significant blockchain technology used in the healthcare sector. It helps create an open-source database to allow healthcare professionals to access patient information and coordinate care. It has revived the capabilities of healthcare and biotech by minimizing the costs associated with constant data breaches and inefficient practices such as medical errors. In sum, SimplyVital has played a significant role in encrypting patient data and information, mainly in managing the outbreak of killer disease. As a decentralized application builder, SimplyVital doubles as a service provider to the Health Nexus protocol that is open source and free to build on (Bennett, 2018).
The blockchain enables SimplyVital Health, Inc. to develop decentralized apps that include a standard SaaS revenue model (ConnectingCare platform) for marketing.
This SimplyVital blockchain with ConnectingCare as its primary app gives actionable financial and strategic insight into what is happening during the patient-transition process via care plan. This ConnectingCare app is crucial since it provides value-based care in which care practitioner becomes financially responsible for out-patients. In sum, it is a blockchain technology that documents nurse-patient communication to ensure financial sustainability. The platform strengthens nurse-nurse coordination and health analytics in the management of bundled payments. Through SimplyVital technology, care coordinates view unified, aggregate patient data and information as patients undertake the care plan in their rolled-up payment (Sajana et al., 2018). In summary, healthcare administrators rely on this blockchain to build an Estimated Bundle Cost dashboard to run in-depth analyses to identify strategic areas for care providers’ alignment and patient care improvements.
A biometric blockchain authentication has played a significant role in hospital admission, readmission, and discharge levels. This biometric patient identification role has helped to register more patients using their fingerprints, which aids the generation of a digital signature via hospital key cryptography. The signature generation tends to be a one-way conversation that relies on fluctuations, hence not repeatable. Thus, if a patient or healthcare provider creates an identity for the second time, the fluctuation becomes different, creating a different signature. In sum, biometric patient identification technology makes it difficult to tamper with the stored data or share a copy of data with unauthorized persons within the hospital.
Within the biotech field, blockchain technology plays a critical role, mainly in supporting the vaccination process. Vaccine identification and several vaccinated people give massive data that demands blockchain technology for management. Therefore, government becomes a primary entity for controlling and coordinating the whole vaccine enrollment process. It can access every data about people’s health status (Valenta & Sandner, 2017). For instance, a blockchain in a vaccine center provides vaccine information, provide person history, and register stored and administered vaccines. The government relies on blockchain to get information and data about the vaccine from enterprises, vaccine centers, people, and nurses.
Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric have been used in tracking diseases and outbreaks. These blockchains help real-time outbreak reporting and exploration of the disease patterns for identifying the origin and transmission parameters. Also, Hyperledger Fabric safeguards genomic whereby several firms that bring DNA sequencing to the individual have contributed to increased theft of genomic data (Valenta & Sandner, 2017). Thus, this blockchain has helped prevent theft cases by offering e-marketing to allow scientists’ genomic information while eliminating intermediaries. In sum, these technologies foster synchronized transactions and enhance healthcare data management.
DNAtix technology company has relied on Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric blockchains to send anonymous genetic information within the shortest time. This capability has enhanced the protection and control of genetic data. For instance, Israeli biotech has used the DNAtix platform to enable DNA data exchange between individuals. Private DNA data transfer, storage, and control on direct-to-consumer DNAtix blockchain platforms enhance biotech service delivery (Motsi-Omoijiade & Kharlamov, 2021). The DNAtix genetics ecosystem has connected individual users searching for health solutions or genetic inquiries with products and services that align with their needs.
The assurance of anonymity and security on the platform has made DNAtix develop the genetic wallet for facilitating a variety of anonymous genetic services. Thus, if a patient buys a DNA collection kit, the hospital creates a “wallet” for a patient on a DNAtix site. This wallet gets linked via a code. Thus, using this wallet allows one to become a code in the system, and this blockchain technology becomes unable to identify such a person (Motsi-Omoijiade & Kharlamov, 2021). After the DNA’s sequence hits the system, the DNAtix knows how to put it into a patient’s waller to enable privatization and maintenance of anonymity.
Primarily, the DNAtix platform has solved privacy issues in the biotech sector, and it has enhanced the testing of sensitive DNA data using the first blockchain ecosystem infrastructure. As a result of highly maintained anonymity, most users will rely on genetics testing and research. All hospitals, DNA research centers, and genetic counselors use, test, and collect DNA data using DNAtix blockchain to connect and work together by sharing genetic data and information.
Conclusively, SimplyVital, Mediledger, Ethereum and Hyperledger, and biometric blockchains have revolutionalized healthcare and biotech sectors worldwide. These technologies have decentralized genetic apps and healthcare management solutions. The blockchain techniques have developed a direct-to-consumer link within healthcare and biotech that provides anonymous and encrypted data sharing and genome sequencing, involving digitized DNA analysis, storage, and transfer.